Style Guide

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All articles should be typed in Microsoft Word, Size 11 font except that footnotes should be one size smaller. One and a half spacing for text and footnotes. Do not leave gaps between paragraphs. Do not use double spaces after full stops. Please use the automatic footnote facility for the footnotes which should be placed at the bottom of each page. Do not use spaces or tabs to indent quotes. Quotes should be indented with the indent feature in Word. Place a tabafter the footnote number before typing in the footnote details at the bottom of the page

Spelling: In general, follow the Australian Government Printing Service style manual. Use ‘ise’ rather than ‘ize’; ‘focuses’ rather than ‘focusses’; programme rather than program; retain the mute ‘e’ in ‘judgement’, ‘acknowledgement etc.

Capitals: Keep the use of capitals to a minimum. Other than for proper names, use only when lower case would cause ambiguity.

Abbreviations: The use of abbreviated titles in the text should be avoided. Those in common usage (e.g. ABC, ACTU, ALP) are allowed (no stops). Lengthy titles can be reduced to a shortened form (whole words) after the first reference. The names of States (Victoria, South Australia, etc.) should be spelled out in full.

Contractions: Contractions (which are distinguished from abbreviations by the presence of the final letter) do not require full stops. Thus ‘Dr’, ‘Mr’, etc.

Italics: All book titles and journal titles should be italicised, as well as names of organisations. Foreign words should be italicised. Names of ships should be italicized. Titles of poems, articles, films etc should be enclosed in single inverted commas.

Hyphens: Keep to a minimum and use only where omission would cause ambiguity. Compound adjectives (e.g. ‘middle-class opinion’) require hyphens.

Apostrophes: Omit from 193Os etc. For possessive form of word ending in ‘s’, spell as pronounced (e.g. Menzies’ policy’, ‘Willis’s statement’).

Numbers: Spell out numbers from one to ten; use numerals from 11 onwards. Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Where numbers above and below ten occur in the same sentence, use either figures or words but not both.

Use % for percentages.

Currency: Use ‘£’ for pounds; ‘s’ for shillings (no stop) and ‘d’ for pence. Thus: ‘£2 3s 2d’.

Quotations: Quotations of fewer than 25 words in length should run on in the text and be enclosed within single quotation marks. Double quotation marks should be used for quotations within quotations.

Quoted passages which exceed 25 words in length should be separated from the main body of the text by indentation and should not be enclosed within quotation marks. Note that indented quotations should be single-spaced and italicised.

Square brackets should be used for author interpolations within quotations. An ellipsis is indicated by three dots (…)

Paragraphs: Indent each new paragraph 3mm.

Dates: Dates should be shown in the form 17 February 1976.

Punctuation: Use commas as sparingly as possible. Where they are used to define clauses and bound phrases they go in pairs.


Footnotes: should be used sparingly if at all. They will be converted by the editor to endnotes.

First Reference

(i) Books: Author’s initial(s) or first name(s), surname, title (in italics), place and date of publication, page reference p. or pp. )

e.g. E.H. Carr, What is History?, London, 1964, pp. l-3.

Where a reissue is cited. put the date of the original edition in brackets after the title. e.g. J.B Gribble, Dark Deeds in a Sunny Land (1905), Nedlands, 1987.

Only the significant words in the title should be capitalised. Use a colon to separate main title from subtitle.

In citing page numbers, do not repeat numerals, except in the case of numbers between 10 and 19. e.g. pp. 232-5, but pp. 112-15.

Chapters in Books: Author’s initial(s) or first name(s), surname, title of chapter (in single quotes), then as for (i). e.g., B. Stoddart, ‘Sport and Society 1890-1940’, in C.T. Stannage (ed.), A New History of Western Australia, Nedlands, 1981, pp. 652-74.

Note that ed. is an abbreviation but eds is a contraction and is therefore not followed by a full stop.

Articles in Journals:Author’s initial(s) or first name(s), surname, title of article (in single quotes), name of journal (in italics), volume (vol.), year, page, reference. e.g., J.R. Poynter, ‘The Yo-Yo Variations’, Historical Studies, vol. l4,1970, pp. 239, 247.

Standard Works of Reference: It is not necessary to provide full details of such standard works of reference as the Australian Dictionary of Biography, Historical Records of Australia, or Dictionary of Western Australians. Series, volume and page numbers are sufficient.

Newspapers:Title (omit the definite article), date, page number (optional). e.g. West Australian, 23 September 1889p. 3.

Interviews: oral sources should be cited as follows: Jill Smith, interviewed by author, 1989.

Subsequent References

Full details of each book, article, or other source cited should be given in the first footnote in which it is referred to. Thereafter short titles or abbreviations may be used as appropriate; op.cit. should be avoided but ibid. (not in italics) may be used where one footnote is the same as its predecessor.

e g. (a) Use the author’s name only, followed by appropiate reference. e.g., Stannage, p. 21.

(b) Where two or more works by the same author are cited, use short titles after the name. e.g. Stannage, A New History, p. 22.

Titles of organisations etc may be reduced to initials (no stops) after the first reference. e.g. DWA. vol. 2, p. l32; ADB, vol. 3, p. 210.